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Post Divorce Relocation Rights of the Custodial Parent - Foot Notes
Foot Notes:

  1. Guidelines for Custody and visitation, Scedule "A", appears in appendix one.
  2. Article IV, Articles of Confederation.
  3. United States v. Guest, 383 U.S. 745, 758 (1966)
  4. In re Passenger Cases, 7 How. 283,492, 12 L. Ed 702, 790 (1849).
  5. Edwards v. California 314 U.S. 160, 177-181, (1941) and Williams v. Fears, 179 U.S. 270, 274 (1900)
  6. Shapiro v. Thompson, 394 U.S. 618, 629-631 (1969).
  7. Id. at 629
  8. Jones v. Helms, 452 U.S. 412, 418-419 (1981)
  9. Attorney General v. Soto-Lopez, 476 U.S. 898, 903 (1985).
  10. See, e.g., Zwernemann v. Kenny, 563 A. 2d 1134, 1144 (N.J. Super Ct. App. Div. 1989).
  11. 162 W. Va. 768, 253 S.E. 2d 371 (1979).
  12. Id. at 775.
  13. Rowsey v. Rowsey, 174 W.Va. 692, 329 S.E. 2d 57 (1985).
  14. Id. at 696.
  15. Garska v. McCoy, 167 W.Va. 59,278 S.E. 2d 357 (1981)
  16. Id. at 64.
  17. Id. at 69-70.
  18. Id. at 66-68.
  19. 182 WV 57, 385 S.E. 2d 912 (1989)
  20. At 69 (Emphasis not supplied).
  21. Id.; Bickler v. Bickler, 176 W.Va. 407, 344 S.E. 2d 630 (1986) ; and Mormanis v. Mormanis 170 W.Va. 717, 296 S.E.2d 680 (1982).
  22. David M. supra., at 67
  23. Id. at 68
  24. Id. at 69(emphasis not supplied).
  25. See, e.g., massachusetts General Law Anno., 208, Section 30; Wisconsin Statutes Anno., Section 767.327; and New jersey Stutes Anno., 9:2-2(Native Children or those residing in new Jersey for five [5] years shall not be removed from the jurisdiction without their consent, if of a suitable age, or consent of both parents if under age, or by Court order).
  26. Smith v. Smith, 138 W.Va. 388, 76 S.E.2d 253 (1953).
  27. See, e.g., Evans v. Allen, 91 S.E.2d 518 (ga. 1956); Casida v. Casida, 659 P.2d56 (Colo App. 1982); and, Taylor v. Taylor, 563 So.2d 1049 (Ala. CA 1990).
  28. See, e.g., Rowsey, supra.; Auge v. Auge, 334 N. W.2d 393 (minn.1983) ; Matilla v. Matilla, 474 So.2d 306 (Fla. 3rd DCA 1985).
  29. Normally, pleading mechanics consist of an application for permission (custodial parent) ; petition for a change of custody (non-custodial parent) ; injunctive relief (non-custodial parent) ; petition to modify visitation including identifying transportation logistics, setting responsibilities therefor, and assessing expenses in accordance therewith (both parents) ; and a rule to show cause in contempt, where an agreement preventing removal had been incorporated previously into a final divorce decree ( non-custodial parent).
  30. Weiss v. Weiss, 418 N.E.2d 377, 436 N.Y.S.2d 862 (1985).
  31. Id. at 380-81; see also, Pecorello v. Snodgrass, 530 N.Y.S.2d 350 (1988) ; and, Atkineson v. Atkineson, 602 N.Y.S.2d 953 (1993).
  32. In re Roe, 23 cal. Rptr.2d 295 (CA 1993).
  33. Bachman v. Bachman, 539 So.2d 1182 (Fla. 4th DCA 1989).
  34. In re Eckert, 518 N.E.2d 1041 (Ill.1988).
  35. Hertzack v. Hertzack, 616 So.2d 727 (La. CA 1993)
  36. Rowland v. Kingman, 629 A.2d 613 (Maine 1993).
  37. Williams v. Pitney, 567 N.E.2d 894 (Mass.1991).
  38. Demerath v. Demerath, 444 N. W. 2d 894 (Mass.1991).
  39. Schwartz v. Schwartz, 812 P.2d 1268 (Nev.1991).
  40. Powe v. Powe, 525 N.E.2d 845 (Ohio CP 1987).
  41. In re Meior, 595 P.2d 474 (Ore. 1979).
  42. Mcalister v. patterson, 299 S.E.2d 322 (S.C. 1982).
  43. Seesel v. Seessel, 748 S.W.2d 422 (Tenn.1988).
  44. Taylor v. Taylor, 563 So. 2d 1049 (Ala. CA 1990)
  45. Bell v. Bell, 572 S.2d 844 (Miss. 1990).
  46. Auge v. Auge, 334 N.W.2d 844 (Minn.1983).
  47. Holder v. Polanski, 544 A.2d 852 (N.J. 1988).
  48. Simmons v. Simmons, 339 S.E.2d 198 (Va. 1986).
  49. In re Long, 381 N.W.2d 350 (Wis.1986) ; but before the present codification of Wisconsin Statues Annotated, Section 767.327. See footnote 25.
  50. Jarmillo v. Jarmillo, 823 P.2d 299 (N.M. 1991), see also Blake v. Blake, 541 A.2d 1201 (Conn. 1988).
  51. Thomas v Thamas, 174 W.Va. 387, 327 S.E. 2d 149 (1985).
  52. 133 W. va. 501, 56 S.E. 2d 901 (1949).
  53. 165 W. Va. 484, 269 S.E.2d 847 (1980).
  54. See pages 503-506 for the precise factual formulation.
  55. Id. at 506.
  56. Id.
  57. Id. at 508 (citations omitted)
  58. Id at 507 and 509
  59. Id. at 509
  60. Id. at 512 (emphasis supplied).
  61. See Merredu v. Merredu 160 W.Va. 610, 236 S.E.2d 452 (1977) ; In regard Brandon L.E., 183 W. Va. 113, 394 S.E.2d 515 (1990) ; and West Virginia Code 48-2-15 (e).
  62. Comprehensive factual scenario found at 495-486.
  63. Sparks at 487-488.
  64. Id. at 488 (emphasis supplied).
  65. Id.
  66. Id.
  67. Rowsey, supra; and Reynolds, infra.
  68. Auge, supra., etc., at footnotes 44-49
  69. Hill v Hill, 548 So2d 750 (Fla. 3rd DCA 1989); Polanski supra.
  70. In re Taylor, 559 N.E.2d 1150 (1990) ; Zaleski v. Zaleski, 513 N.Y.S.2d 784 (1987) (rationale: children belong to a new family unit and harmony of that unit should be preserved).
  71. Pearmen v. Pearmen, 781 S.W.2d 585 (Tenn. CA 1989)
  72. Gruber v, Gruber, 583 A.2d 434 (Pa. 1990)
  73. Pecorella v. Snodgrass, 530 N.Y.S.2d 350 (1988) ; In re carnich, 780 S.W.2d 62 (Mo. CA 1989). Cf. Zwernermann, supra.
  74. See, e.g., 28 ALR 4th 9, Sections 3 and 6; and brett R. Turner, The Price of stability: Recent Case Law on Relocation of the Custodial Parent, 3 Divorce Litigation 5 (1994).
  75. Powe, supra.
  76. In re Sleight, 786 P.2d 202 (Ore 1990) and Scinaldi v. Scinaldi, 347 S.E.2d 149 (Va. 1986).
  77. West Virginia Code 48-2-15 (b)(1) (1993) ; to-wit: "...the court shall specify a schedule for visitation by the non-custodial parent..."
  78. Weber v. Weber, 193 W.Va. 551, 457 S.E.2d 488 (1995).
  79. 192 W.Va. 683, 453 S.E.2d 666 (1994).
  80. Id. at 686; see also Weber, supra., at 554 ('But, in all cases, the family law master must consider both of the child's needs and the non-custodial parent's right to visitation'). (Emphasis Supplied).
  81. The pertinent excerpts from Guidelines for Custody and Visitation, Scedule "B", are reproduced in appendix two.
  82. For the legal ramifications and nuances created by joint and split custody arrangements, see Turner, op cit., at 57-58; and nadine E. Roddy, Joint Child Custody in the 1990's: Parent Relocation, 6 Divorce Litigation 10 (1994).
  83. Zwerneman, supra. at 1144.
  84. Planned Parenthood of Cenrat Missouri v. Danford, 428 U.S. 52, 74, (1971).
  85. See Powe, supra.; 4 ALR 3rd 1396; and 10 ALR 4th 812.
  86. Kelly v. Kelly, 518 N.Y.S.2d 508 (1987).
  87. J.B. v. A.B., 161 W.Va. 332, 242 S.E.2d 248 (1978), Note 5; and Rose v. Rose, 176 W.Va. 18, 340 S.E.2d 176 (1985).
  88. see C.J. Miller's dissent in Graham vs. Graham, 174 W.Va. 345, 326 S.E.2d 189, 191 (1984): and Rose, supra., at 21.
  89. Rose, supra., note 4 at page 21.
  90. Reynolds v. Reynolds, 189 W.Va. 566, 570, 433 S.E.2d 277, 281 (1993).
  91. Id.
  92. See section II., Historical Perspectives of the Right to travel, supra.
  93. Califano v. Torres, 435 U.S. 1 (1977)
  94. Bergstrom v. Bergstrom, 296 N.W.2d 490, 10 ALR 4th 812 (1980); Acosta v. gaffney, 558 F.2d 1153 (CA 3d 1977); and Lopez v. Franklin, 427 F. Supp. 345 (E.D.Mich.1977).
  95. 387 U.S.1, 13 (1967)
  96. Vail v. Vail, 532 So.2d 639 9Ala.CA 1988); Viltz v. Viltz, 384 So.2d 1348 (Fla. 3d DCA 1980).
  97. Sambola v. Sambola, 493 So.2d 206 (La. CA 1986).
  98. For more detailed treatment of international custody questions, see James Grayson, International Relocation, the Right to Travel, and the Hague Convetion: Additional Requirements for Custodial Parents, 28 Family Law Quarterly 3 (1994)
  99. Id.
  100. David M., supra., at 69.
  101. Rose v. Rose, supra.
  102. Reynolds v. Reynolds, supra.
  103. Jaramillo, supra.
  104. Rowsey and Reynolds, supra.
  105. Joplin, supra.


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