All I want is to see my kids and raise them. Talk to them as frequently as I can. Now every time I call my kids a sense of dread overwhelms me. I take ambien to sleep when I can, I never had a problem sleeping before.
Accusations have reached insanity.
I talk to a lawyer, several, and they all say hmmmmmmmmm wellllllllllll you can go for outright custody. Well how much would that cost "2000 to 10000$ or more, but chances are nothing would change."
Yea I have that in my pocket.
All I want is to raise my kids. Now they are saying terrible things to the children about me. The kids are under 8.
They (ex and BF) are well off and I am not. I am never late with CS. I don't want much but it seems that I'm asking to much. :( :( :(
I just don't think I can be any sadder.
I love them so much but that means nothing except pain.
This past year has been hell.
I am sure you are not the only one. Looks like soon I will be joining you. My soon to bx is using my hard earned money to fight in court and take my daughter away. I was keeping this marriage going just for my daughter but looks like the judge has already made his dicision to who gets what. the why do we need the lawyers?
Keep your head up. Life is not fair and we are experiencing it.
No. YOU don't if you are MALE..
But, YOU can change it...if you dare...
Watch for FIRM's TV in the near future...
In the meantime, grab a beer/drink and KNOW the below...
THE SECRET OF THE SPECIAL MARITIME JURISDICTION
OF THE UNITED STATES
REVEALING THE MOST REPUGNANT FRAUD
EVER PERPETRATED ON THE PEOPLE OF
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
A BRIEF DISSERTATION EXPOSING
THE TRUE NATURE AND CAUSE
OF MODERN CRIMINAL
COPYRIGHT BY VALIANT LIBERTY, 2001
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
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PERMISSION TO COPY, PUBLISH, REPRINT AND DISTRIBUTE IN ANY MEDIUM IS
EXPRESSLY GRANTED ON THE CONDITION THAT THIS ARTICLE BE
REPRODUCED IN ITS ENTIRE, COMPLETE, AND UNEDITED
VERSION AND THAT ACKNOWLEDGMENT BE
GIVEN TO VALIANT LIBERTY
1. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CAVEAT - DISCLAIMER:
This work is in no way to be construed as legal advice or as a course of action.
It is not written by attorneys. If the reader wants advice, he should hire
Woe unto you also, you lawyers; for you lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and you yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers.
Woe unto you, lawyers! For you have taken away the key of knowledge: you entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in you hindered.
THE SCOPE OF THE FRAUD
The trials and tribulations that many people accused of "criminal offenses" are a direct result of not understanding the nature and cause of the accusation. The end result of this lack of knowledge and understanding is that the United States and the States have the largest prison population in the world and execute the most people. Lives and families are destroyed. Family farms are stolen by unscrupulous judges and attorneys. Hard-working folks who have done no wrong have lost their homes and savings and have been reduced to a state of poverty by an encounter with the American system of injustice. The horror stories are limitless. This author believes that this lack of understanding is the result of the "dumbing down of America," a part of a scheme devised and orchestrated by foreign and domestic enemies of the people of the United States of America, not the least of which are the American Bar Association and the various State Bar Associations which sprang from England. These Bar Associations have concocted a Luciferian scheme bringing the maritime jurisdiction onto the land and the scheme undoubtedly includes every member of every bar association up to the dishonorable justices of the Supreme Court. These foreign and domestic enemies of the people of the united States of America are believed by many, including the author, to have schemed for years, at least since the founding of our nation, to establish a total takeover of not only our country, but the entire planet and to enslave the people in their demonic quest to establish a One World Government or "New World Order" created out of the chaos of the destruction of Liberty and to be founded upon the ruins of the principles on which our once great nation was established and with the slave labor supplied by a once free, self sufficient and proud people.
Yes, Virginia, there is a conspiracy. There is a conspiracy by attorneys to steal everything that you have and to make you a slave. The members of the bar have bestowed honors, privileges and immunities upon themselves in direct violation of the very constitutions that they have sworn an oath to uphold so they can steal with impunity. They have defecated on the principles of law and justice. This author has personally witnessed them laugh about their "license to steal" when referring to their membership in the bar. Lawyers have infiltrated and taken control of the legislatures so they can enact laws for their own unjust enrichment. For the most part, they occupy or control the offices of the executive branches of the governments of the several states so they can sign the legislative enactments into law. They absolutely control the judicial branch so they can adjudicate and enforce the laws and divide the spoils among themselves. They control the banks so they can launder their ill-gotten gains. These zealous advocates of injustice will strip you of everything of value you have if they are given the least opportunity. If you hire one to help you out of a scrape with the law, for the most part, you will end up in prison while your lawyer is sipping margueritas on the beach in Cancun, paid for with your money. Your ex-wife might even be with him. Only if you have as much money as T. Cullen Davis or O.J. Simpson once did, might you be able to buy yourself some justice. The justice these two colorful characters bought for themselves cost them their fortunes, but they evaded imprisonment and possible execution for a price paid in money.
Most people don't have the financial resources with which to bribe the members of the bar, so they languish in prison while the lawyers take what little property they had, plus a bonus from the State for their "services." When you go into a court accused of a "crime," and are inclined to hire a lawyer or accept a court appointed lawyer to help you out, remember that the lawyer is being paid by the STATE and is licensed by the STATE, the judge is licensed and paid by the STATE, the jury is licensed and paid by the STATE (they at least have driver licenses, don't they?), the prosecutor is licensed and paid by the STATE. If the judge orders a psychological evaluation to determine if you are competent to stand trial, the psychobabelist is also licensed and paid by the STATE. The cop that accused you and who will testify against you is licensed and paid by the STATE. If you are tried and sentenced to death, the cleric who comes to pray for your miserable soul before the execution is licensed and paid by the STATE. The guy who sticks the needle in your arm for the euthanasia is licensed and paid by the STATE. After they inject you with poison, the doctor that pronounces you dead is licensed and paid by the STATE. Could there be a hint of conflict of interest here? If the reader has ever had any experience with the modern criminal injustice system, the term "contempt of court" has taken on a whole new meaning for him.
The lawyers fill the prisons with people who have injured no one but are convicted of statutory crimes of a maritime jurisdiction. Prisons are filled with people whose only "crime" was to be in possession of a substance that they, the lawyers, have declared to be illegal. Good parents are separated from their children for attempting to discipline them, or because of divorce. Fathers are in prison because they cannot pay the court ordered child support; it is blatantly imprisonment for debt. People are in prison for exercising their presumed right to keep and bear arms. People are routinely thrown in jail for non-jailable traffic offenses and the Supreme Court in Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, #99-1408, (Apr. 24, 2001) has said it is OK. People are jailed every day for such heinous offenses as not wearing a seat belt or not paying a "motor vehicle" registration fee. America, the land of the slave and the home of the fee, has more people in prison and more people on death row than any other country in the world, and new prisons are being built every day. And in order to keep these new prisons filled beyond capacity, the various lawyer-controlled legislatures are busy enacting more and more new statutory maritime crimes.
Woe be unto you if you don't pay a tax that is presumed to be due. If you don't pay up, the zealous advocates of injustice will drag you into their secret maritime jurisdiction on the presumption of a tax debt and steal your bank account, your car, your home and anything else they can find. You may even go to prison. If you resist too much or know too much, they will send their minions, the police, to assassinate you in broad daylight with impunity. The lawyers protect their obedient minions. These police agencies, whose motto is "to protect and serve," get away with murder on a routine basis. Yes, they do protect and serve their masters, the lawyers, very well. This is why this essay must be spread far and wide as quickly as possible. The word must get out. The attorneys will stop at nothing to keep the scheme of their maritime jurisdiction secret. One advantage that the people have is that the rats are not yet totally in control of the Internet. Please use it; if you have a web page, please post this article. Another advantage that the people have is numbers; there are more of us than there are of them. The greatest advantage that the people have is the truth. The lawyers fear it; they go to extraordinary lengths to suppress it. If you want to know what fear smells like, find a judge after you read this article and explain what you are about to learn from the succeeding pages. Mail copies of this article to every lawyer, judge, legislator and sheriff you can, if you know of any who can read. Let the pungent odor of fear waft across the land. They know that once the truth escapes it cannot be held back and once again covered with darkness, at least not for several generations. When they are exposed, they will be powerless and vulnerable. People eventually recognize the truth; the truth is light, and the darkness flees from the light. The American people still have a sense of justice, and the lawyers especially fear justice.
How have they gotten away with the fraud for so long and managed to keep secret the maritime jurisdiction that has come onto land? The answer is; because the lawyers also control the fourth estate and institutions of religion and learning. The news media aids and abets the Esquires by suppressing the truth and perpetrating lies. It is a form of Orwellian mass mind control. The people are constantly fed a stream of propaganda through the network news, the newspapers, the public schools, colleges and universities (all lawyer controlled), and most especially, the incorporated 501(c)3 churches. Like all other corporations these churches are controlled by lawyers. The corporations that the people work for aid and abet the lawyers by perpetuating the false truths in their corporate policies. The subliminal messages transmitted are the lies that America is a free country, slavery is abolished, America is the great land of opportunity, there is separation of church and state, and "good Americans" and especially "good Christians" should submit to the government; it is the patriotic "Christian" thing to do. These themes never cease; they are constantly bombarded and ingrained into the psyche of the people. Hitler recognized in his work, Mein Kampf that if you told a lie and repeated and reinforced it often enough, the people would begin to accept the lie as a truth. The bigger and more outrageous the lie the better. After a period of time, when the lie is sufficiently programmed into the psyche of the national consciousness and is accepted as truth, the human mind does a remarkable thing. If the truth is then presented, it will be rejected as a lie. The psychobabelists have recognized this phenomena and describe it as cognitive dissidence. This cognitive dissidence can be compared to programming a computer; if you program lies and false information into the computer, it will spew out lies and false information or just lock up completely and cease to function. Junk goes in; junk comes out. This cognitive dissidence is powerful and difficult to overcome. Your authors have struggled to overcome it for years.
Another method very successfully used by the lawyers to keep their secret under the cover of darkness is the age-old strategy of sending their minions to infiltrate, divide and conquer any organization of people banding together to resist the present tyranny of the injustice system. The authors have personally witnessed the effectiveness of this strategy. The minions of the Esquires sent to infiltrate "patriot organizations" are intelligent, skillful and highly trained in the arts of deception and betrayal. They are people of likable personalities, who are able to gain trust, induce people into "offending" some maritime penal regulation and set them up for prison. The most active or successful "patriots" are the ones on the top of the list to be targeted. They must be beaten into submission or "neutralized," sometimes with extreme prejudice; witness the fate of Gordon Kahl. Some of these infiltrators are undoubtedly honest people that have run afoul of a maritime penal regulation and have caved in to the pressure put on them by lawyers and their minions to inform on others in order to avoid incarceration. Some do it purely for money. Others are agents of the lawyers who travel the "patriots' circuit" holding seminars and disseminating false information and "sure fire remedies" guaranteed to be the proverbial magic bullets. Many good people have lost their property and liberty pursuing these false remedies sold by patriots for profit who are paid by the attorneys to lie and then double dip into their victim's pocket by selling the false information. And then there are other patriots holding seminars who truly believe that they have the answer, and end up in jail after an attempt to apply their own theory. It is understandable how one can fall victim to a false "patriot for profit" scheme. Your authors have been victims of some of these schemes. People that run afoul of the American system of injustice are so desperate for some relief that they become easy targets of opportunity. Live and learn. The age-old warning of caveat emptor should be applied to this instant article. Do your own research and check it out. Education, however it is obtained, is usually expensive. Hopefully, most folks learn by their mistakes.
But the dawn is near; the sun is rising. The path traveled by those seeking the truth of the fraud has been a long and arduous journey. It passes through a jungle growing over the hollow remnants of many small businesses, the ruins of family farms, the shells of homes once occupied by close-knit families, and passes by dead bodies and graves marking the way. The path to truth has been filled with stumbling blocks seemingly insurmountable and many forks lead to false trails. Many who have started down the path have found the journey so difficult that they have turned back. Others, more determined and of stronger character have perished along the way. A great debt is owed to those who have blazed the trail before us and marked at least part of the way, marked false trails and removed some of the stumbling blocks. Without the knowledge that they have gained to be built upon, your authors would have never discovered what they have.
This article is not the work of any one man. It is the accumulated work of many. It is the culmination of many pieces of a giant puzzle that has been assembled with Divine intervention. The authors sincerely believe that the timing of this revelation of fraud is keyed to the timetable of the Creator. His plan for the destiny of mankind and the Universe has existed from the beginning, and the Plan is nearing the final stages of execution. The lawyers are soon to suffer the woes described in the Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 23. The secular judges are soon to be judged by the Judge of the Universe. How can they defend themselves? You may be assured that most of all they live in fear of their own judgment before the Supreme Judge. They are responsible for their own actions as observed by one jurist in the case of Robin v. Hardaway, 1 Jefferson 109; 1 Am Jur 2d 14: "A legislature must not obstruct our obedience to Him from whose punishments they cannot protect us."
THE SIXTH AMENDMENT
The key to the fraud hinges on understanding the 6th Article of Amendment of the Constitution of the United States. The discussion begins with the text as follows:
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense. [emphasis added].
The key words in the emphasized portions are ALL and SHALL. "All" implies that there is more than one criminal jurisdiction. "Shall" makes the enjoyment of the right to be informed mandatory. The information or indictment must state the nature and cause in plain language that is understood by the accused. Many victims accused of offenses against the STATE or UNITED STATES have found themselves in prison and all their assets forfeited "for lack of understanding" of the nature and cause of the accusation.
The Supreme Court has held:
There are no common law offenses against the United States. Only those acts which Congress has forbidden, with penalties for disobedience of its command, are crimes. United States v. Hudson & Goodwin, 11 U.S. (7th Cr.) 32 (1812); United States v. Coolidge, 14 U.S. (1 Wheat.) 415 (1816); United States v. Britton, 108 U.S. 199, 206 (1883); United States v. Eaton, 144 U.S. 677, 687 (1892).
Actions to recover penalties imposed by act of Congress generally but not invariably have been held not to be criminal prosecutions. Oceanic Navigation Co. v. Stranaham, 214 U.S. 320 (1909); Hepner v. United States, 213 U.S. 103 (1909); United States v. Regan, 232 U.S. 37 (1914).
Contempt proceedings, which were at one time not considered to be criminal prosecutions, are no longer within that category. Compare In re Debs, 158 U.S. 564 (1895), with Bloom v. Illinois, 391 U.S. 194 (1968).
WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE ACCUSATION?
If common law crimes against the United States do not exist, what kinds of crime do exist against the United States? Article III, Section 2 provides for four different jurisdictions, law, equity, admiralty, and maritime. By process of elimination, we can automatically rule out law by virtue of the above Supreme Court holdings. Equity is defined as "Justice administered according to fairness as contrasted with the strictly formulated rules of common law. The term equity denotes the spirit and habit of fairness, justness, and right dealing which would regulate the intercourse of men with men. (See: Black's 6th). Equity deals with fictions, like corporations. Since it is common knowledge that law and equity have been combined and are virtually indistinguishable from each other, and that anyone who has witnessed "criminal" proceedings in the courts easily recognizes that these "criminal" or "quasi-criminal" accusations are most usually contrary to the spirit and habit of fairness and justness and right dealing of men with men. Therefore, the cause of action cannot be in equity.
Admiralty is defined in Bouviers 1856 edition as": the name of a jurisdiction which takes cognizance of suits or actions which arise in consequence of acts done upon or relating to the sea; or, in other words, of all transactions and proceedings relative to commerce and navigation, and to damages or injuries upon the sea. 2 Gall. R. 468. Black's 6th edition observes that: "the terms "admiralty and "maritime" are virtually synonymous."
Bouvier's 1856 edition defines "Maritime Cause" as:
1. Maritime causes are those arising from maritime contracts, whether made at sea or on land, that is, such as relate to the commerce, business or navigation of the sea; as, charter parties, affreightments, marine loans, hypothecations, contracts for maritime service in building, repairing, supplying and navigating ships, contracts and quasi contracts respecting averages, contributions and jettisons; contracts relating to marine insurance, and those between owners of ships. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2621.
2. There are maritime causes also for torts and injuries committed at sea.
3. In general, the courts of admiralty have a concurrent jurisdiction with courts of law, of all maritime causes: and in some cases they have exclusive jurisdiction. [Emphasis added].
As long ago as 1851 the Supreme Court recognized that the Congress has the power to extend the jurisdictions of admiralty and maritime causes to the land under the commerce clause and deprive the people of the right of a trial by jury. The following holding by the high court pretty much says it all.
This power [of admiralty jurisdiction] is as extensive upon land as upon water. The Constitution makes no distinction in that respect. And if the admiralty jurisdiction, in matters of contract and tort which the courts of the United States may lawfully exercise on the high seas, can be extended to the lakes under the power to regulate commerce, it can with the same propriety and upon the same construction, be extended to contracts and torts on land when the commerce is between different States. And it may embrace also the vehicles and persons engaged in carrying it on. It would be in the power of Congress to confer admiralty jurisdiction upon its courts, over the cars engaged in transporting passengers or merchandise from one State to another, and over the persons engaged in conducting them, and deny to the parties the trial by jury. Now the judicial power in cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, has never been supposed to extend to contracts made on land and to be executed on land. But if the power of regulating commerce can be made the foundation of jurisdiction in its courts, and a new and extended admiralty jurisdiction beyond its heretofore known and admitted limits, may be created on water under that authority, the same reason would justify the same exercise of power on land." Propeller Genessee Chief et al. v. Fitzhugh et al. 12 How. 443 (U.S. 1851)
The very next year, in 1852, the Supreme Court warned that this admiralty or maritime threat to Liberty was encroaching on the land and morphing itself into an air breathing creature just as a harmless tadpole transforms itself into a frog, and this is a really ugly frog. If you had never seen a tadpole gradually go through this miraculous process, you might never believe that such a transformation could occur, changing a harmless water-breathing creature into an air-breathing predator.
Next to revenue (taxes) itself, the late extensions of the jurisdiction of the admiralty are our greatest grievance. The American Courts of Admiralty seem to be forming by degrees into a system that is to overturn our Constitution and to deprive us of our best inheritance, the laws of the land. It would be thought in England a dangerous innovation if the trial, of any matter on land was given to the admiralty" Jackson v. Magnolia, 20 How. 296 315, 342 (U.S. 1852)
Has the Congress expanded this admiralty and maritime jurisdiction? The answer is a definite and emphatic yes. One only need examine the codification at Title 18 of the United States Code, Section 7:
TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec. 7. Special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States defined
The term ''special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States'', as used in this title, includes:
(1) The high seas, any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State, and any vessel belonging in whole or in part to the United States or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, when such vessel is within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State.
(2) Any vessel registered, licensed, or enrolled under the laws of the United States, and being on a voyage upon the waters of any of the Great Lakes, or any of the waters connecting them, or upon the Saint Lawrence River where the same constitutes the International Boundary Line.
(3) Any lands reserved or acquired for the use of the United States, and under the exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction thereof, or any place purchased or otherwise acquired by the United States by consent of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of a fort, magazine, arsenal, dockyard, or other needful building.
(4) Any island, rock, or key containing deposits of guano, which may, at the discretion of the President, be considered as appertaining to the United States.
(5) Any aircraft belonging in whole or in part to the United States, or any citizen thereof, or to any corporation created by or under the laws of the United States, or any State, Territory, district, or possession thereof, while such aircraft is in flight over the high seas, or over any other waters within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and out of the jurisdiction of any particular State.
(6) Any vehicle used or designed for flight or navigation in space and on the registry of the United States pursuant to the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies and the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space, while that vehicle is in flight, which is from the moment when all external doors are closed on Earth following embarkation until the moment when one such door is opened on Earth for disembarkation or in the case of a forced landing, until the competent authorities take over the responsibility for the vehicle and for persons and property aboard.
(7) Any place outside the jurisdiction of any nation with respect to an offense by or against a national of the United States.
(8) To the extent permitted by international law, any foreign vessel during a voyage having a scheduled departure from or arrival in the United States with respect to an offense committed by or against a national of the United States.
-SOURCE- (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 685; July 12, 1952, ch. 695, 66 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 97-96, Sec. 6, Dec. 21, 1981, 95 Stat. 1210; Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 1210, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2164; Pub. L. 103-322, title XII, Sec. 120002, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2021.)
The broad language of Title 27, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 72.11 makes almost all crimes whether or not they are Federal or States crimes "commercial crimes." In the Propeller Genessee Chief, supra, it was revealed that admiralty courts have jurisdiction over interstate commerce, so it would follow that the crimes listed in 27 CFR 72.11 are cognizable in an admiralty or maritime court, and such are commercial courts. The relevant part of the text is as follows:
Commercial crimes. Any of the following types of crimes (Federal or State): Offenses against the revenue laws; burglary; counterfeiting; forgery; kidnapping; larceny; robbery; illegal sale or possession of deadly weapons; prostitution (including soliciting, procuring, pandering, white slaving, keeping house of ill fame, and like offenses); extortion; swindling and confidence games; and attempting to commit, conspiring to commit, or compounding any of the foregoing crimes. Addiction to narcotic drugs and use of marihuana will be treated as if such were commercial crime.
In the Ebsworth & Ebsworth lecture of 1994, infra, Proctor Wiswall states: "Congress has been repeatedly held by the Court to have the power to extend the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction by statute, and Congress has repeatedly exercised that power;" (see e.g., The "Lottawana", 88 U.S. 558 (1875); also Panama Railroad v. Johnson, 264 U.S. 375 (1924)).
What many of the victims accused of maritime "crimes don't realize is that admiralty and maritime jurisdictions were merged with the law and equity jurisdictions in 1966 (See: Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, notes to Supplementary Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims). All four causes of action (or natures of the cause) which were once separate and distinct are now rolled into one set of rules and indistinguishable from one another in our modern courts. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, (FRCP) Rule 1 provides that: "These rules govern the procedure in the United States district courts in all suits of a civil nature whether cognizable as cases at law or in equity or in admiralty with the exceptions stated in rule 81." Rule 2 provides that: "There shall be one form of action to be known as "civil action." FRCP Rule 9(h) provides in part: "If the claim is cognizable only in admiralty, it is an admiralty or maritime claim for those purposes whether so identified or not." FRCP Rule 38(e) provides that: "These rules shall not be construed to create a right to a trial by jury of the issues in an admiralty or maritime claim within the meaning of rule 9(h).
Well now, aren't the rules revealing. Maybe this explains why the judge can amend or reverse a jury verdict, or even jail the jurors for contempt if they don't do what the judge tells them to do. It has happened. The jury is just there for window dressing to make the sheep think that there is a trial by jury. Law, equity, admiralty and maritime, the once separate and distinct jurisdictions are now neatly rolled into one set of rules, tried in the same courtroom with the same judge, on the same docket and with nothing to distinguish the different jurisdictions from one another.
If the criminal accusations that plague Americans today are not in the jurisdictions of common law or equity, they must be in admiralty or maritime jurisdictions. And though admiralty and maritime jurisdictions are virtually indistinguishable, Bouvier's definition of a "Maritime cause" as those arising from maritime contracts whether made at sea or on land fits the bill.
For the sake of illustration, let's take time to consider the condition of military personnel. When a young man enlists in the armed forces, he signs an enlistment contract that binds him to the law of the Code of Military Justice. This Code of Military Justice (COMJ) cannot apply to civilian folks who are not contracted. Under the COMJ, the accused is guilty until proven innocent. If the accused wishes to defend himself, he is put into the position of trying to prove a negative, a virtual impossibility, e.g., he is put into the position of proving that he did not do something. The military court or court-martial, where these military cases are tried, is a legislative criminal court established under the legislative power of the congress to regulate the armed forces. Their jurisdiction is entirely penal"An action upon a penal statute" is defined as: an action for the recovery of a penalty given by statute. In a broad sense, the term has been made to include all actions in which there may be a recovery of exemplary or vindictive damages; an action in which the judgment against the defendant is in the nature of a fine or is intended as a punishment. and disciplinary. The word "penal" is inherently a much broader term than "criminal" since it pertains to any punishment or penalty and relates to acts which are not necessarily delineated as criminal. Military personnel are subject to court-martial penalties because they are under a maritime contract.
Did you ever notice that Texas has a Code of Criminal Procedures, but not one criminal law? That's right, there is no Criminal Code and not one criminal law in Texas, but, there is a Penal Code that is just chock full of "offenses" and more are being added every time the legislature convenes. And if you have done battle in the Texas court system, you will have noticed that the courts don't follow the Code of Criminal Procedure very well. If you make enough noise, they will give it a little bit of "lip service," but the judges mostly ignore it. The courts have held:
Power of punishment is vested in the legislature, not in the judicial department, it is the legislature, not the court, which is to define a crime, and ordain his punishment. U.S. v. McClain, 545 F.2d 988, rehearing den. 551 F.2d 52, (5th Cir. 1977).
The legislature may declare that the doing of certain acts, shall constitute the offense of sodomy, and may ignore, if it sees fit, the common law elements of the offense. Slusser v. State, 232 SW2d 727, 1949.
Under Texas law, no act or omission is a crime unless made so by statute. Dawson v. Vance, 329 F.Supp. 1320, (D.C.Tex. 1971).
The Legislature may create an offense and in same enactment, provide exceptions to its application. Williams v. State, 176 SW2d 177, Tex.Cr.App., 1943.
In summary and according to the courts, the legislature defines crimes, can create a crime, while ignoring the common law elements of a crime and mandate the punishment for the crime it creates. There is no crime unless it is created by the legislature. All of this certainly flies in the face of the common law rule that there must be an injured party for a crime to exist. These creations of the legislature are most certainly maritime "crimes." The Texas legislature has certainly exercised its power to extend the maritime jurisdiction.
CADET CUSTER'S COURT-MARTIAL
The story of George Armstrong Custer's court-martial is a case on point. In 1861, as a young cadet in West Point, Mr. Custer struck an officer and knocked him to the ground. He was immediately arrested, tried before a court martial and found guilty of the offense. Custer was about to be sentenced to 15 years of hard labor. Before sentencing, Custer addressed the court and asked why the sentence was so severe, it was only a friendly fist fight. The court explained to Custer that the sentence imposed was mandated by the Articles of War, which provided at Article 9:
Any officer or soldier who shall strike his superior officer, or draw or lift up any weapon, or offer any violence against him, being in the execution of his office, on any pretense whatsoever, or shall disobey any lawful command of his superior officer, shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall, according to the nature of his offense, be inflicted upon him by the sentence of a court-martial. (2 Statutes at Large 259).
The court went on to explain that Custer, as a cadet had signed the Articles of War when he was admitted to the academy and was bound to the punishment. The court felt that the punishment was suitable to the nature of the offense and quite merciful under the circumstances. Custer expressed confusion and stated that he didn't know anything about these Articles of War and didn't have any recollection of signing them. This statement put the officers of the court-martial in a frenzy. They immediately adjourned the court to inspect the enrollment records. Sure enough, they found that Custer had not signed the Articles of War. When the court was reconvened, the judge ruled that the case is dismissed for lack of subject matter jurisdiction. Custer was then ordered to sign the Articles of War or discontinue his education at West Point. The fate of Custer was determined by the want of a signature.
In this trial, Custer was afforded the right of allocution. Allocution is the formality of a court's inquiry of a defendant as to whether he has any legal cause to show why judgment should not be pronounced against him on conviction (See: Black's 6th). In this case, Custer was able to show cause as to why he should not be sentenced and save himself from being imprisoned and possibly hanged. When Custer denied having signed the contract, the burden of proof was shifted because of his rebuttal of the presumption that the contract existed. Custer was freed because, without the contract, the court-martial did not have subject matter jurisdiction to execute the sentence. Custer may have known what he was doing by demanding the right of allocution, which is alive and well today, but I doubt it. The authors believe he was just lucky and stumbled and bumbled into the remedy. This story is a fact of history. It is also a fact of history that Custer did not learn much from the court-martial because he later disobeyed orders by not waiting for reinforcements at a place called Little Big Horn, a place where his luck left him. Moral of the story is: if the lawyers don't get you the Injuns will.
The right of allocution is an ancient right rooted in the English common law and cannot be denied. The Supreme Court has held in Green v. United States, 365 U.S. 301 (1961):
The design of Rule 32 (a) did not begin with its promulgation; its legal provenance was the common-law right of allocution. As early as 1689, it was recognized that the court's failure to ask the defendant if he had anything to say before sentence was imposed required reversal. See Anonymous, 3 Mod. 265, 266, 87 Eng. Rep. 175 (K. B.). Taken in the context of its history, there can be little doubt that the drafters of Rule 32 (a) intended that the defendant be personally afforded the opportunity to speak before imposition of sentence. We are not unmindful of the relevant major changes that have evolved in criminal procedure since the seventeenth century - the sharp decrease in the number of crimes which were punishable by death, the right of the defendant to testify on his own behalf, and the right to counsel. But we see no reason why a procedural rule should be limited to the circumstances under which it arose if reasons for the right it protects remain. None of these modern innovations lessens the need for the defendant, personally, to have the opportunity to present to the court his plea in mitigation. The most persuasive counsel may not be able to speak for a defendant as the defendant might, with halting eloquence, speak for himself. We are buttressed in this conclusion by the fact that the Rule explicitly affords the defendant two rights: "to make a statement in his own behalf," and "to present any information in mitigation of punishment." We therefore reject the Government's contention that merely affording defendant's counsel the opportunity to speak fulfills the dual role of Rule 32 (a). See Taylor v. United States, 285 F.2d 703.
However, we do not read the record before us to have denied the defendant the opportunity to which Rule 32 (a) entitled him. The single pertinent sentence - the trial judge's question "Did you want to say something?" - may well have been directed to the defendant and not to his counsel. A record, certainly this record, unlike a play, is unaccompanied with stage directions which may tell the significant cast of the eye or the nod of the head. It may well be that the defendant himself was recognized and sufficiently apprised of his right to speak and chose to exercise this right through his counsel. Especially is this conclusion warranted by the fact that the defendant has raised this claim seven years after the occurrence. The defendant has failed to meet his burden of showing that he was not accorded the personal right which Rule 32 (a) guarantees, and we therefore find that his sentence was not illegal.
However, to avoid litigation arising out of ambiguous records in order to determine whether the trial judge did address himself to the defendant personally, we think that the problem should be, as it readily can be, taken out of the realm of controversy. This is easily accomplished. Trial judges before sentencing should, as a matter of good judicial administration, unambiguously address themselves to the defendant. Hereafter trial judges should leave no room for doubt that the defendant has been issued a personal invitation to speak prior to sentencing. GREEN v. UNITED STATES, 365 U.S. 301 (1961).
The U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, in U.S.A. v. Myers, 1998, expanded further on this holding of the Supreme Court:
Rule 32(c)(3)(C) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure states that the court must , before imposing sentence, address the defendant personally and determine whether the defendant wishes to make a statement and to present any information in mitigation of the sentence.
Initially, we must decide whether Myers was, in fact, denied the so-called "right of allocution" secured him by Rule 32. We review de novo whether a district court complied with a Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure. U.S. v. Scott, 987 F.2d 261, 264 (5th Cir. 1993). The government contends that Myers was indeed afforded his allocution rights because (1) the court invited Myers to explain why the firearm enhancement should not apply, and (2) through defense counsel , Myers was able to argue that he had cooperated with the government and that he was a minor participant in the conspiracy. Further, the government contends that a remand is, in any case, not warranted since Myers received the lowest sentence possible. We reject the government's arguments as meritless.
First, we observe that thirty-seven years ago the Supreme Court, in Green v. United States, 365 U.S. 301 (1961), we rejected the argument that a defendant's right of allocution may be satisfied through his counsel. In Green the court stated:
The most persuasive counsel may not be able to speak for a defendant as the defendant might, with halting eloquence, speak for himself. We are buttressed in this conclusion by the fact that the Rule explicitly affords the defendant two rights: "to make a statement on his own behalf," and "to present any information in mitigation of his sentence." We therefore reject the Government's contention that merely affording defendant's counsel the opportunity to speak fulfills the dual role of Rule 32(a).
As the Supreme Court recognized, Rule 32 envisions a personal colloquy between the sentencing judge and the defendant. See U.S. v. Anderson, 987 F.2d 251, 261 (5th Cir. 1993); U.S. v. Dominguez-Hernandez, 934 F.2d 598, 599 (5th Cir. 1991). The arguments of Myers's counsel therefore did not satisfy Rule 32.
Second, the court's two questions to Myers regarding the firearm enhancement were patently inadequate to meet the plain requirements of Rule 32. By its own terms, Rule 32 mandates that a defendant be given the opportunity "to make a statement and present any information in mitigation of sentence." FRCrP 32(c)(3)(C). (Emphasis added). The court questioned Myers merely to confirm that there was a factual basis for the firearm enhancement. Those esquires were not even an arguable attempt to give Myers the broad-ranging opportunity to speak embodied in Rule 32. See, e.g., U.S. v. Sparrow, 673 F.2d 862, 864 (5th Cir. 1982); see also, U.S. v. De Alba Pagan, 33 F.3d 125, 129 (1st Cir. 1994).
We also reject the government's assertion that, because Myers received the lowest sentence possible, a remand for resentencing would be a useless act. We pretermit discussion of that issue, however, until the next section.
In sum, in order to satisfy the command of Rule 32(c)(3)(C), the court, the prosecutor, and the defendant must at the very least interact in a manner that shows clearly and convincingly that the defendant knew he had a right to speak on any subject of his choosing prior to the imposition of sentence.
De Alba Pagan , 33 F.3d at 129, citing Green , 365 U.S. at 304 -05. Buttressed by our own independent review of the record, we reject the government's claim that Myers was afforded his Rule 32 right of allocution.
We now must turn to a question left undecided by the Supreme Court in Green: whether denial of a defendant's Rule 32 right of allocution requires an automatic reversal and remand for resentencing, or whether such an error can be deemed "harmless" if the record shows that, regardless what the defendant might have said in his own behalf, the court would not have imposed a lower sentence. The government implicitly contends that a harmless error analysis should apply when it urges that "remand is not warranted because there is no possibility that a lower sentence would have been imposed by the district court." Citing our decision in Dominguez-Hernandez, the government maintains that remanding Myers's case for resentencing would therefore be a "useless bow to procedural nicety." Dominguez-Hernandez, 934 F.2d at 599.
The government misconstrues Dominguez-Hernandez, a case which, we must observe, entirely refutes the government's position. In Dominguez-Hernandez, we reaffirmed the settled principle that "[i]f the district court fails to provide the [Rule 32] right of allocution, resentencing is required." Dominguez-Hernandez, 934 F.2d at 599, citing U.S. v. Posner, 868 F.2d 720, 724 (5th Cir. 1989) (emphasis added). We remanded for resentencing even though the defendant (1) had not raised the error to the district court, and (2) did not even assert that, on resentencing, he wished to exercise his right of allocution. Dominguez-Hernandez, 934 F.2d at 599. It was in view of the latter point in particular that we observed remand could "well be a useless bow to procedural nicety." Id. Nonetheless, we found that failure to afford the defendant his allocution rights necessitated remand; our precedents dictated, and continue to dictate, such a result. See, e.g. , U.S. v. Anderson, 987 F.2d 251, 261 (5th Cir. 1993); U.S. v. Sparrow, 673 F.2d 862, 864-65 (5th Cir. 1982).
Because it is apposite to Myers's case, we add that a remand is necessary even when the judge's comments, at the sentencing hearing or elsewhere, indicate that the judge would remain unmoved in the face of anything the defendant has to say. See Sparrow, 673 F.2d at 865. 6 The right of allocution embodied in Rule 32 does not exist merely to give a convicted defendant one last-ditch opportunity to throw himself on the mercy of the court. To be sure, one important function of allocution is "to temper punishment with mercy in appropriate cases, and to ensure that sentencing reflects individualized circumstances." De Alba Pagan, 33 F.3d at 129. But the practice of allowing a defendant to speak before sentencing, which dates back as far as 1689 to the case of Anonymous, 3 Mod. 265, 266, 87 Eng.Rep. 175 (K.B. 1689), has symbolic, in addition to functional, aspects. As a sister Circuit has observed, "[a]ncient in law, allocution is both a rite and a right. ...[A]llocution has value in terms of maximizing the perceived equity of the [sentencing] process." De Alba Pagan, 33 F.3d at 129 (citations and internal quotes omitted). The right of allocution, then, is one "deeply embedded in our jurisprudence"; both its longevity and its symbolic role in the sentencing process counsel against application of a harmless error analysis in the event of its denial. Id.
The district court was well within its discretion in rejecting the § 5K1.1 motion and also, as we will below demonstrate, in subjecting Myers to the firearm enhancement. See discussion infra Part II. All we say, however, is that Myers should have been invited to speak freely in his own behalf prior to sentencing. A hypothetical observer to the proceedings, then, would have been left with no doubt that Myers's sentence reflected the sentencing court's considered judgment about the gravity of his individual participation in the drug conspiracy. Such benefits, although perhaps intangible, could have been bought at the relatively cheap cost of complying with the simple, clear language of Rule 32(c)(3)(C). As we have already observed, the burden of such compliance falls upon the sentencing court, and not upon the convicted defendant. See Dominguez-Hernandez, 934 F.2d at 599.We recognize that our holding today puts us at odds with some of our sister Circuits. For example, the Fourth, Sixth and Ninth Circuits apply some variation of harmless error analysis to the denial of a defendant's Rule 32 allocution rights. See, e.g., U.S. v. Cole, 27 F.3d 996, 999 (4th Cir. 1994); U.S. v. Riascos-Suarez, 73 F.3d 616, 627 (6th Cir.), cert. denied , 117 S.Ct. 136 (1996); U.S. v. Leasure , 122 F.3d 837, 840 (9th Cir. 1997), cert. denied , 118 S.Ct. 731 (1998) . On the other hand, the First Circuit, in De Alba Pagan, supra, squarely held that such an error could not be harmless. De Alba Pagan, 33 F.3d at 129, see also U.S. v. Patterson, 128 F.3d 1259, 1261 (8th Cir. 1997), citing U.S. v. Walker, 896 F.2d 295, 301 (8th Cir. 1990).
For the foregoing reasons, we AFFIRM the district court's application of the firearm enhancement, but we VACATE Myers's sentence because of the district court's failure to accord Myers his Rule 32 right of allocution. We must therefore REMAND FOR RESENTENCING.
The right of allocution is alive and well in Texas. It may be a right, but not necessarily a "rite" as elucidated by the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals. According to the Texas Courts, the defendant must take the initiative and demand the right to the "rite" of allocution himself before sentencing. The Texas courts hold:
The trial court does not err in failing to grant the defendant his right of allocution, where, even though the record shows that the mandatory question was not asked by the trial court, there are no objections to the court's failure to inquire of the defendant if he had anything to say as to why the sentence should not be pronounced against him, and where there is no contention that any of the statutory reasons set forth to prevent the pronouncement of sentence ever existed. Hernandez v. State, (App. 9th Dist. 628 SW2d 145, (1982)).
When the record is silent on the subject [allocution] and there is no showing to the contrary, it will be presumed on appeal that the requirement was complied with. Johnson v. State, (1883) 14 App. 306; Bohannon v. State (1883) 14 App. 271.
Where there is no objection in trial court that defendant has been denied right of allocution, no error is shown on claim that recitation in formal sentence that defendant was asked by court whether she had anything to say why sentence should no be pronounced against her is not supported by transcription of court reporter's notes. Tenon v. State 563 SW2d 197, (1978).
The old cliché that if you don't know what your rights are, you don't have any seems to be the order of the day in Texas Courts. Those living in other states might want to do some research on the holdings of their respective courts concerning allocution.
THE REQUIREMENT TO REVEAL THE NATURE AND CAUSE
The author has made, and has witnessed others make, numerous demands for "bills of particular" and "more definite statements" to determine the nature and cause of these penal offenses that we sometimes find ourselves charged with. It is enough to say here that the sliminess, stonewalling and just plain blatant viciousness of the courts and prosecutors in their attempts to conceal the true nature and cause of the accusation can be astonishing. The 6th Amendment makes this "right" to know the nature and cause mandatory. Why are they (judges and prosecutors) so bent on concealing this mandatory information? The Supreme Court has held:
The constitutional right to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation entitles the defendant to insist that the indictment apprise him of the crime charged with such reasonable certainty that he can make his defense and protect himself after judgment against another prosecution on the same charge. United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542, 544, 558 (1876); United States v. Simmons, 96 U.S. 360 (1878); Bartell v. United States, 227 U.S. 427 (1913); Burton v. United States, 202 U.S. 344 (1906).
No indictment is sufficient if it does not allege all of the ingredients that constitute the crime. Where the language of a statute is, according to the natural import of the words, fully descriptive of the offense, it is sufficient if the indictment follows the statutory phraseology, but where the elements of the crime have to be ascertained by reference to the common law or to other statutes, it is not sufficient to set forth the offense in the words of the statute. The facts necessary to bring the case within the statutory definition must also be alleged. Potter v. United States, 155 U.S. 438, 444 (1894). United States v. Carll, 105 U.S. 611 (1882).
If an offense cannot be accurately and clearly described without an allegation that the accused is not within an exception contained in the statutes, an indictment which does not contain such allegation is defective. United States v. Cook, 84 U.S. (17 Wall.) 168, 174 (1872).
Despite the omission of obscene particulars, an indictment in general language is good if the unlawful conduct is described so as reasonably to inform the accused of the nature of the charge sought to be established against him. Rosen v. United States, 161 U.S. 29, 40 (1896).
The right to notice of accusation is so fundamental a part of procedural due process that the States are required to observe it. In re Oliver, 333 U.S. 257, 273 (1948); Cole v. Arkansas, 333 U.S. 196, 201 (1948); Rabe v. Washington, 405 U.S. 313 (1972).
Article VI of the Constitution of the United States mandates that all the judges of every State are bound to the supreme Law of the Land and all judicial officers shall take an Oath or Affirmation to support the Constitution. The office of judge is an office of public Trust under the Constitution and this "trust" creates a duty and obligation on the judges. This author submits that every judge in every local, State, and Federal court is in breach of the duty to reveal the nature and cause of their quasi criminal, maritime penal charges that they are misrepresenting to the people to be crimes in common law.
All this brings us to the topic of "fraudulent concealment." A few of the definitions of fraudulent concealment provided by the Texas Courts are:
Party having superior knowledge who takes advantage of another's ignorance of the law to deceive him by studied concealment or misrepresentation can be held responsible for that conduct. Fina Supply, Inc. v. Abilene Nat. Bank, 726 S.W.2d 537, 1987.
Knowing failure to disclose material information necessary to prevent statement from being misleading, or making representation despite knowledge that it has no reasonable basis in fact, are actionable as fraud under Texas law. Rubinstein v. Collins, 20 F.3d 160, 1990.
Party in interest may become liable for fraud by mere silent acquiescence and partaking of benefits of fraud. Bransom v. Standard Hardware, Inc., 874 S.W.2d 919, 1994.
When circumstances impose duty to speak and one deliberately remains silent, silence is equivalent to false representation. Fisher Controls International, Inc. v. Gibbons, 911 S.W. 2d 135, 1995.
When a person sustains to another a position of trust and confidence, his failure to disclose facts that he has a duty to disclose is as much a fraud as an actual misrepresentation. Blanton v. Sherman Compress Co., 256 S.W. 2d 884, 1953.
There are literally hundreds of similar holding by U.S. and Texas courts if one cares to go look in the library. There are some people who would call this fraudulent concealment of the nature and cause of the accusation treason.
CLEAN HANDS AND FICTITIOUS PLAINTIFFS
When a prosecuting attorney brings a cause of action to court accusing some poor soul with a crime in the secret maritime jurisdiction, he (or at least his client) needs standing to sue. All cases in law, equity, admiralty or maritime, are now classified as "civil actions." Civil maritime and admiralty actions require a contract between the plaintiff and defendant for the plaintiff to have standing to sue. For the plaintiff to have standing and for the court to have jurisdiction of the subject matter, there must be in existence a bona fide contract binding the accused into the criminal maritime jurisdiction and the lawyer rat had better be able to get it properly into evidence. This is the foundation of the venue jurisdiction and the subject matter jurisdiction of the court. Under the doctrine of "clean hands", relief will not be granted to a party, who as an actor, seeks to set the judicial machinery in motion and obtain some remedy, it such party in prior conduct has violated conscience or good faith or other equitable relief. One seeking relief cannot take advantage of one's own wrongdoing.
The plaintiff's attorney (prosecutor) is representing the STATE OF TEXAS, or the UNITED STATES, both corporations. If you don't believe the STATE OF TEXAS is a corporation, look up Article XI, Section 1 in the Texas Constitution; it is all clear enough. If you don't believe that the UNITED STATES is a corporation, it is right there in Title 28 USC 3002 (15)(A). The prosecuting attorney is representing a corporation, a fictitious plaintiff, and bringing a maritime claim on the presumption that a maritime contract exists between the STATE OF TEXAS and the defendant, or more correctly, the ignorant victim. The ignorant victim does not know that this presumption even exists, does not know that the cause of action cannot be in the common law because a crime in law requires a corpus delecti, that is to say, the body of the crime or an injured party, and a corporation cannot be the body of the crime or an injured party because it is artificial, a fiction. Trust the author on this, there is plenty of well-settled authority, but it will not be cited here in the interests of brevity while covering the essentials. Because of constant government indoctrination and the lasting effects of cognitive dissidence, the fact that the cause is of a maritime nature is beyond the poor victim's comprehension. The ocean is a long way from Kansas, Dorothy! So how could the accused victim of an alleged offense committed on the land end up in a maritime court and be bound to a presumed maritime contract?
The attorneys for the plaintiff are prosecuting the suit in maritime jurisdiction without evidence entered into the record of the contract binding the Petitioner to the maritime law. Without such contract the trial court is wholly in want of subject matter jurisdiction and venue jurisdiction. The doctrine of "unclean hands" applies to the attorneys for the plaintiff. The courts have held:
It is old hat that a court called upon to do equity should always consider whether the petitioning party has acted . . . with unclean hands. Texaco Puerto Rico, Inc. v. Department of Consumer Affairs, 60 F.3d 867, 880 (1st Cir. 1995). This consideration is rooted in the maxim that "he who comes into equity must come with clean hands." Precision Instrument Mfg. Co. v. Automotive Maintenance Mach. Co., 324 U.S. 806, 814 (1945).
Under the doctrine of unclean hands, a court may refuse to grant equitable relief to a plaintiff who has been guilty of unlawful or inequitable conduct regarding the issue in dispute. Lazy M Ranch, Ltd. v. TXI Operations, LP, 978 S.W.2d 678, 683 (Tex. App. 1998)
It is well settled that a party seeking equity cannot come into a court with unclean hands. Schenk v. Halliday Real Estate, Inc., 803 S.W.2d 361, 366 (Tex. App. 1990)
The findings show fraud on [the part of the party seeking legal subrogation]. He does not come into court with clean hands, and is therefore not in a position to invoke the equitable principles upon which legal subrogation rests.); Rotge v. Dunlap, 91 S.W.2d 905, 908 (Tex. App. 1936)
Applying to legal subrogation the maxim that "one who seeks equity must come into court with clean hands., Christian v. Manning, 59 S.W.2d 234, 237 (Tex. App. 1933), and See: Bell v. Franklin, 230 S.W.2d 181, 185 (Tex. App. 1921) (same).
A presumption is an inference in favor of a particular fact; a rule of law, statutory or judicial, by which finding of a basic fact gives rise to existence of the presumed fact, until the presumption is rebutted. It is a legal devise, which operates in the absence of other proof to require that certain inference be drawn from the available evidence. A presumption is an assumption of fact that the law requires to be made from another fact or group of facts found or otherwise established in the action. A presumption is not evidence. A presumption is either conclusive or rebuttable. Every rebuttable presumption is either a presumption affecting the burden of producing evidence or a presumption affecting the burden of proof. A presumption imposes on the party against whom it is directed the burden of going forward with evidence to rebut or meet the presumption, but does not shift to such party the burden of proof in the sense of the risk of non persuasion, which remains throughout the trial upon the party on whom it was originally cast. In commercial law, a presumption means that the tryer of fact must find the existence of the fact presumed unless and until evidence is introduced which would support a finding of its non- existence. A conclusive presumption is one in which proof of a basic fact renders the existence of the presumed fact conclusive and irrebuttable. Few in number and often statutory, the majority view is that a conclusive presumption is in reality a substantive rule of law, not a rule of evidence. A rebuttable presumption can be overturned upon the showing of sufficient proof. In general, all presumptions other than conclusive presumptions are rebuttable presumptions. Once evidence tending to rebut the presumption is introduced, the force of the presumption is entirely dissipated and the party with the burden of proof must come forward with evidence to avoid a directed verdict. (See: Black's 6th).
The Supreme Court discusses substantive and rebuttable presumptions in Heiner v. Donnan, 285 U.S. 312, (1932), where the court held that:
...it is hard to see how a statutory rebuttable presumption is turned from a rule of evidence or of substantive law as the result of the later statute making it conclusive. In both cases it is a substitute for proof; in the one, open to challenge and disproof, and in the other conclusive. However, whether the latter presumption be treated as a rule of evidence or of substantive law, it constitutes an attempt, by legislative fiat, to enact into existence a fact which here does not, and cannot be made, to exist in actuality, and the result is the same..." This court has held more than once that a statute creating a presumption which operates to deny a fair opportunity to rebut violates the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. For example, a constitutional prohibition cannot be transgressed indirectly by the creation of a statutory presumption any more than it can be violated by a direct enactment.
If a legislative body is without power to enact as a rule of evidence, a statute denying a litigant the right to prove the facts of his case, certainly the power cannot be made to emerge by putting the enactment in the guise of a rule of substantive law.
For those worried about the applicability of the Fourteenth Amendment, the high court further held that:
Nor is it material that the Fourteenth Amendment was involved in the Schlesinger Case, instead of the Fifth Amendment, as here. The restraint imposed upon legislation by the due process clauses of the two amendments is the same. Heiner v. Donnan, supra.
And for the discerning reader who requires deeper study on the subject of presumptions, see: Tot v. U.S., 319 U.S. 463, (1943); U.S. v. Bowen, 414 F2d 1268, U.S. v. Simmons, 416 F2d 33, (1973); U.S. v. Perry, 474 F2d 983; U.S. v. Lake, 482 F2d 146, (1973) and U.S. v. Belgrade, 484 F2d 915 (1973). The is also no shortage of state court holdings on the subject of presumptions.
HOW THEY DO IT
The process of bringing the harmless tadpole out of the sea and transforming it into a fire breathing murderous predator on the land began, as near as the authors can determine, around 1851 and recognized by the holdings of the Supreme Court in the case of Propeller Genessee Chief et al. v. Fitzhugh et al., supra, warning of the power of Congress to expand the admiralty jurisdiction of the federal courts. So the beast of Revelation, Chapter 13:1, has risen form the sea and come upon the land and "the dragon [Congress?] gave him his power," "and power was given to him over all kindred's, and tongues, and nations." If the reader is still not convinced that the courts are exercising and enforcing a maritime jurisdiction, the following portions of Proctor Wiswall's lecture should be of help.
The 1994 Ebsworth & Ebsworth Maritime Law Lecture entitled THE JURISD
Equality is not a difficult concept...
This blather will get you nowhere.
We have a problem here. That problem is Eric. Eric is a known KOOK. He cannot stand the thought that Fathers here are gaining custody of their children based on the advice and support of other Fathers at this site(DS). He constantly whores out his web site here and offers no advice to Fathers other than 'see my web site. What's even worse is that he has been banned from several web sites and at one time, made a big deal about leaving THIS web site forever because of the so-called 'feminazi' influence, only to return within a few days to [censored] out his web site again.
His only goal is self-aggrandizement as evidenced by this quote of his: 'Your "queen bees" can tell you about my television, newspaper, magazines and radio shows that I am not only mentioned but, speaker on...'
He will not visit any forum that is moderated primarily because they won't permit him to [censored] out his web site and immediately delete his constant rants. He fancies himself a medieval knight slaying feminazi pigs with his 'magical piggie-sword and has a fixation with toilet paper.
Be forewarned and aware of this KOOK and IGNORE HIS POSTS!!
Copy & Paste, Copy & Paste, Copy & Paste! (Actually written by Ben...Followed by NoMAD's addition below)
Eric Arthur Ericson has been known to take data that he retrieves through his website (and email) to get your personal information. It is imparitive that you DO NOT visit his site or you will risk being threatened when you disagree with anything he says.
Just to give you the idea - He has resorted to calling people's employers with ridiculous accusations in an effort to get them fired.
If you feel you need access to more information than what we provide here, then we can direct you to other places. Just ask.
Complaints can be forwarded to the "ACTUAL owner of the Firm site" (although results are unlikely)
Owner Name: LESSMAN RONALD G & LINDA S
Owner Address: 4124 NE BRIER RD TOPEKA 66616
785-230-4546 (valid #)
785-234-3486 (uncertain #)
Complaints can be forwarded to the moderator of the Firm site (although results are unlikely)
Eric Arthur Anderson is listen in the phone book as "E Flaherty"
His phone number is:
His address is:
Dunntown Rd, Washburn, ME 04786
I calls 'em like I sees 'em!