I'm sure you've helped some people through your responses, but PLEASE quit "helping" anyone from Colorado. You clearly have no experience or knowledge whatsoever in the family courts here.
For example, you mentioned rehabilitative alimony in your response again. There is *no*, and I mean *no* concept of rehabilitative alimony in Colorado. Of course, two couples can write whatever they want into their agreement, but in a court-adjudicated case, there is *no* *never* *ever* rehabilitative alimony in Colorado. Ever. Period. IT DOESN'T EXIST. The *only* grounds for termination of alimony here are death or remarriage. The courts can not and will not require an alimony recipient to get a job or earn money, or order alimony based on any such factors. Furthermore, there is no concept here of a declining alimony payment to try to urge someone to get a job or "wean" them off of alimony. It is ordered for a specific amount, for either a set length of time or for life, and the payments *will* continue at that level until the term has ended, someone dies, the recipient remarries, or there is a petition to the court to modify. Modifications are almost NEVER granted, and as I posted above, even indigence on the part of the payor is not grounds for ending alimony. They will throw you in jail first, as they did to the father of the sick wife and child who stayed home to take care of them.
You mentioned the court "may" award temporary maintenance. In Colorado, the court *will by law* award temporary maintenance if there is *any* income discrepancy whatsoever, and the lower earner asks for it. It is mandated by law.
I would love to give you a "study" about permanent awards, but guess what? All divorce records in Colorado are now sealed. You cannot get ANY information about a divorce here unless you are a party to the divorce, or you have a subpoena. Given that, there is no way to have a "study" is there? So all we have to go on is individual anecdotes, and believe me, they are legion, and they will make you hair stand on end.
As I said, until the OP weighs in with a state, further conjecture is unnecessary.
In the future please decline to give any alimony advice to people posting from Colorado.